Bioenergy is one of the most important sources of
renewable energy in Ireland, UK, Germany, Denmark, Norway and many other
EU and none EU states. Since it is available in both liquid and gaseous
and above all in solid form it is suitable for storage. A large part of
this energy is burned in boilers. The energy set free is solar energy,
stored in organic form. A decisive advantage of Bioenergy compared with
other forms of renewable energy is the possibility of making this energy
available according to requirements. This applies both for the starting
materials, such as wood, and the intermediate and end products, such as
biogas and Biofuel. Furthermore, Bioenergy does not contribute to the
greenhouse effect, since the combustion of organic matter releases the
same amount of carbon dioxide as absorbed during the time of growth.
Bioenergy (wood pellet) heating system for domestic
for all your heating and hot water.
Heating with Bioenergy
1) Accumulation storage tanks
2 )Wood pellet boiler
3) Automatic pellet transport
4) Wood pellets
5) Delivery of wood pellets
Generation of Bioenergy
Bioenergy is obtained from
biomass, which is available in different forms. Agricultural and forestry
products are examples of solid biomass. These products include, for
example, specially cultivated energy-bearing plants, fast-growing types of
trees, timber and grain straw. Other such products are cutting waste from
forestry or agricultural operations, as well as treated and untreated old
timber, sawdust, paper and cellulose and also residual and waste matter
from agricultural and foodstuff production.
decades, the anaerobic fermentation process has been employed for the
generation of biogas. Many plants utilise residual agricultural matter for
this process. As a rule, these result from animal husbandry and farming.
In this way, many farmers are now able to provide their own power. Thanks
to the Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz (EEG),
the Law Governing Renewable Energies, the excess can be fed at a regulated
rate of remuneration into the public electrical network.
Biogas comprises methane,
carbon dioxide, oxygen and nitrogen. In order to obtain energy, it is
directly burned; however, mostly it serves as fuel in cogeneration plants,
where heat and electricity are generated. Cofermentation enables a
considerable increase in biogas yields. Here, regenerative raw materials
or wastes from the foodstuff industry, such as fats or food waste from
restaurants, are mixed to give the starting materials. The fermented and
largely odourless material can then be processed to fertiliser, which, by
contrast with non-fermented liquid manure, is characterised by vastly
greater plant compatibility
Biomass utilisation creates
jobs in areas other than agriculture and forestry as well. In the entire Bioenergy
added value chain, in recent years 50,000 jobs have been created
and secured in Germany. The cultivation of energy-bearing plants and the
utilisation of biogas and biodiesel plants offers farmers a fully new
field of business. The mostly decentralised biomass production and
exploitation of this form of energy especially stimulate regional added
Bioenergy sources however also
represent very promising alternatives to conventional fuels, such as
petrol or Diesel. To date, biodiesel is the most popular representative of
Biofuels. Along with this fuel, there are also bioethanol, derived from
plants containing sugar or starch, methanol, derived from lignocellulose-containing
biomass such as wood, vegetable oils derived from rapeseed, sunflowers and
other oil-bearing plants, and the synthetic fuels derived from biomass
(Biomass To Liquid / BTL).
Within recent years, the sales
figures for biodiesel in Germany have doubled. In the year 2004, more than
one million tonnes of biodiesel were produced. In the meantime, 376
million litres of biodiesel cover the requirements of 300,000 cars.
Government support in the form of a tax exemption until 2009 has helped
biodiesel, through a network of more than 1,900 filling stations, to
become the most important alternative to fossil fuels. Besides sales by
biodiesel filling stations and utilisation on the part of haulage
companies, adding up to 5 % to Diesel from mineral oil constitutes a
further important potential market.
With the production of
synthetic fuels from biomass, research already has the next generation of Biofuels
in view. At present, production is in the pilot stage. The solid
biomass is first gasified and then liquefied using Fischer-Tropsch
synthesis. Compared with biodiesel and bioethanol, these synthetic fuels
have the decisive advantage that their composition can be optimally
matched to the combustion behaviour of the motor. The tax advantage
applies for these fuels, just as for biodiesel.
In addition to biodiesel, in
Germany ethanol derived from biomass is assuming increasing importance.
Similar to biodiesel, bioethanol is added to petrol derived from mineral
oil. The first production sites are already in operation in Germany, and
others are being built. The starting material is essentially
energy-bearing grains. According to the targets of the EU Directive, by
2010 the share of Biofuels consumed in fuel in Germany must be 2.1 million
tonnes , corresponding to a market share of 5.75 %.
In the area of Bioenergy, estimates
indicate that, in Germany alone, the potential for development is more
than 13,000 Megawatts. Solid biomass will contribute here in part. The
best known form of biomass utilisation is heating with wood. Here, in
recent years the classical form of firewood must now compete with a new
form of wood. In recent years, wooden pellets and the required pellet
boiler have become increasingly important.
The combination of compressed wood scraps
and an automatic boiler have enabled the market share of this CO2-neutral
source of energy to grow considerably. Above all in family dwellings, this
form of boiler represents a welcome alternative to oil and gas boilers,
without requiring compromises on the part of the consumer in respect of
delivery or stocking of the fuel. As a rule, systems to which several
households are connected burn wood chips. These are approximately as large
as matchboxes and, as with pellets, suitable for automatic fuel feeding.
In recent years, the importance of supply
with Bioenergy has increased enormously. Pellet systems alone account for
30,000 systems already in operation. The expansion of pellet production
sites is following analogously in order to ensure supply to the consumers.
A special market incentive programme, originating in the federal
government, has considerably accelerated this expansion.
Conversion of the form of energy is however
taking place not only with small installations. In the power plant area,
biomass is already replacing a part of the fossil energy carriers today.
The combustion of fossil fuels together with biomass can significantly
reduce the emission of greenhouse gases. In pure biomass power plants,
efficiencies of greater than 35 % (electrical) have already been obtained.
As a rule, old timber and wood scraps are used for firing. However,
besides wood, grass, straw, shrub cuttings, wheat chaff, rapeseed, manure,
liquid fertiliser or sludge can also be burned. The electricity produced
is, as with all plants generating electricity using renewable energy
sources, remunerated in accordance with the EEG.
The European Union as well as the German
government supports the building of plants for the utilisation of Bioenergy. In addition to different promotional programmes of the EU, the
the Law Governing Renewable Energies, offers decisive incentives for the
development and application of innovative technologies.
Investment security through feed-in
Together with the EEG,
the German legislative body has decisively influenced the development of
the Bioenergy industry. The guaranteed remuneration for supply means
security of investment for the operator. The objective of the EEG
is to establish all renewable energy technologies on the energy market and
to increase their share to at least 20 % by the year 2020. The central
element of the EEG
is therefore a guaranteed minimum price, paid for the electricity fed into
the public grid from renewable energies. The grid operators are obligated
to accept electrical power from renewable energy sources and accordingly
pay the EEG
rates. The level of remuneration differs according to the areas wind,
water, solar, biomass or geothermal heat and the size of the installation.
Thus, for example, if renewable raw materials are utilised as the source
of energy, the plant operator is granted a bonus of six cents per
kilowatt-hour of electricity fed in, in addition to the remuneration for
Growth of the industry creates jobs
Thanks to such promotion, the Bioenergy
industry is experiencing an enormous upswing. As a result,
numerous jobs are being created in the Bioenergy industry, in the area of
machine construction and in agriculture. Farmers have been given new
perspectives due to the potential for profit from Bioenergy generation and
are thus able to operate profitably.
Thanks to the great number of
implemented installations, German companies can call upon a wealth of
experience. They are thus in an excellent position to furnish expert
support to the customer in the manufacture and maintenance of Bioenergy installations.